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The Catechism in Pictures & Le Catéchisme en Images:

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– The Catechism in Pictures – 1938 (1912) – All pages with transcribed pages, PDF: Click Here

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The Catechism in Pictures (1912)

 

Page 1 – images & texts 01 to 15   Click here
Page 2 – images & texts 16 to 32   Click here
Page 3 – images & texts 33 to 49   Actual Page
Page 4 – images & texts 50 to 66   Click here

 


 

Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture 33

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture no. 33

THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Third Commandment (concl.): Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath day.

 

1. The custom of profaning Sunday is bad for society at large, which is often severely punished for the sin.

2. Serville work may be done on a Sunday when there is some real necessity for it and it is in connection with some charity, but in no case can it be urged as an excuse for not attending mass.

3. The higher occupations, by which we mean those in which the mind plays a larger part than the body, as, for example, reading and writing, are not prohibited on Sundays.

4. Nor is there any objection to innocent recreation such as tennis, badminton, croquet, &c., if indulged in moderation, but all dangerous amusements, which in the end do great harm, are strictly forbidden.

5. Besides Mass, the hearing of which is obligatory, the Church recommends attendance at sermons and the evening services.

6. Lastly, the Church also enjoins us on Sundays to perform various pious acts, such as going to communion, reading pious books, making the Stations of Cross, &c., and works of charity, such as visiting the sick and poor, and so on.

7. Under the old law the punishment for profaning the sabbath was death. And so the Scribes and Pharisees, who watched for every opportunity to catch Christ tripping, reproached Him with desecrating the Sabbath and also allowing His disciples to do the same thing. But Our Lord was able to show them over and over again that charity towards one’s neighbour stood before the strict observance of the Sabbath. How He did this can be read in the following two extracts from St. Matthew and St. Luke respectively:

« At that time Jesus went through the corn on the sabbath, and His disciples being hungry, began to pluck the ears and to eat. And the Pharisees seeing them, said to Him: « Behold thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath days ». But He said to them: « Have you not read what David did when he was hungry, and they that were with him? How he entered into the house of God and did eat the loaves of proposition, which it was not lawful for him to eat, nor for them that were with him, but for the priests only? Or have ye not read in the law that on the sabbath days the priest in the temple break the Sabbath and are without blame? But I tell you that there is here a Greater than the temple and if you knew what this meaneth, I will have mercy and not sacrifice. You would never have condemned the innocent, for the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath ».

And when He had passed from thence, He came into their synagogues, and behold there was a man who had a withered hand and they asked Him, saying: « Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days? » that day might accuse Him. But He said to them: « What man shall there be among you that hath one sheep and if the same fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not take hold on it and lift it up? How much better is a man than a sheep! Therefore, it is lawful to do a good deed on the sabbath days ». Then He said to the man; « Stretch forth thy hand. » And he stretched it forth, and it was restored to health even as the other. And the Pharisees going out, made a consultation against Him, how they might destroy Him. » (Matt. XII, 1-14.)

« And He was teaching in the synagogue on their sabbath. And behold there was a woman, who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and she was bowed together, neither could she look upwards at all. Whom when Jesus saw, He called her unto Him, and said to her: « Woman, thou art delivered from thy infirmity ». And He laid His hands upon her, and immediately she was made straight and glorified God. And the ruler of the synagogue (being angry that Jesus had healed on the sabbath) answering, said to the multitude: « Six days there are wherein you ought to work. In them therefore come and be healed and not on the sabbath day ». And the Lord answering him, said: « Ye hypocrites, doth not every one of you on the sabbath day loose his ox or his ass from the manger and lead them to water and ought not this daughter of Abraham whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the Sabbath day ». And when He said these things, all his adversaries were ashamed. » (Luke XIII, 10-17.)

Explanation of the Plate.

8. We see in the upper picture Moses, by command of God, ordering the Israelites to stone a man who had collected firewood on the sabbath day (Num. XV, 32-36).

9. The small picture on the left shows Jesus, and behind Him His apostles, picking on the Sabbath some ears of corn with which to appease their hunger (See extract from St. Matthew above).

10. In the small picture on the right we see at the feet of Jesus the man with the withered hand, and, behind Him, some Scribes and Pharisees (See same extract).

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture 34

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture no. 34

THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Fourth Commandment: Honour thy father and thy mother.

 

1. By the Fourth Commandment God requires us (1) to love our parents; (2) respect them, (3) to obey them, (4) to provide for their needs.

2. To love our parents is to be devotedly attached to them and to give proof of this on all and every occasion.

3. They have a right to be loved thus, because it is to them, after God, that we owe our existence and there is no trouble or sacrifice so great that they would not willingly undergo on our account.

4. To respect them is to pay every deference to them and to bear unmurmuringly with their weaknesses and infirmities and even their defects.

5. We owe them both respect and obedience because they occupy for us on earth the place of God Himself.

6. One way of honouring them is humbly to pray to God that they may succeed in all their undertakings to the full measure of their heart’s desire, meet with every consideration in the world outside, and above all be beloved of God and dear to the saints in heaven.

7. Another way of honouring them is to submit to their judgement and wishes in regulating our conduct.

8. St. Paul advises us to the same effect when he says: « Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is just. » (Eph. VI, 1.) And again: « Children, obey your parents in all things, for this is well pleasing to the Lord. » (Coloss. III, 20.)

9. A third way of honouring our parents is to imitate their good actions and their virtuous life, for obviously the highest mark of esteem we can show to any one is to desire to be like him in everything that makes for rectitude.

10. Still another way of honouring them is to seek their advice and, what is more, to follow it.

11. Lastly, we render to them the honour that is their due by providing for their wants when they are in need, and making their lives as comfortable and free from care as possible.

12. All this Our Lord Himself teaches us in his reproach of the Pharisees: « Why do you also transgress the commandment of God for your tradition? For God said Honour thy father and thy mother, let him die the death. But you say: « Whosoever shall say to father or mother: The gift whatsoever proceedeth from me, shall profit thee. And he shall not honour his father or his mother, and you have made void the commandment of God for your tradition. » (Matt. XV, 3-6.)

13. To perform to the full our obligations towards our parents is our bounden duty at all time, but more especially so during their last illness.

14. Then must every effort be made to have them visited by the priest, so that they may make their confession and be given the Holy Viaticum and Extreme Unction, which every Christian must receive at the approach of death.

15. Thus fortified for their last journey and, as it were, surrounded and accompanied by a glorious band of all the virtues – faith, hope, charity, religion – they will not only meet death without fear, but, for the very reason that it is inevitable, will even long for it as the thing that will open the portals of eternity to them.

16. Honour to our parents does not end with their death. After they are dead we must give them a worthy funeral, place a fitting monument over them, pray and have masses said for them annually and faithfully carry out their last wishes.

17. We cannot too frequently repeat it, we must faithfully carry out their last wishes and pray and have masses said for the repose of their souls.

18. The concluding words of this Commandment, « That thou mayest be long-lived upon the land which the Lord thy God will give thee » mean that God blesses and rewards, often even in this life, the child who honours his father and his mother.

19. The child who outrages his parents or deserts them in their need calls down upon himself the curse of God (Deut. XXVII, 16) and is held in horror among men.

20. The perfect model of obedience which all children should imitate is the Child Jesus, Who remained subject to Mary and Joseph during all the time He lived with them at Nazareth.

Explanation of the Plate.

21. The main picture represents the Child Jesus helping Mary in housework and Joseph in the business of his trade.

22. In the small picture on the left we see the younger Tobias restoring his sight to his father, in the presence of the angel Raphael, by anointing his eyes with the gall of the fish which he had killed during his journey to the country of the Medes. (Tob. VI, 5 and XI, 13-15.)

23. The small picture on the right shows Our Lord tending His foster-father during his last moments and pressing him lovingly to His Sacred Heart.

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture 35

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture no. 35

THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Fourth Commandment (cont.): Honour thy father and thy mother.

 

Duty towards other relations and superiors.

1. The fourth Commandment requires us to honour, besides our parents, also our relatives and our spiritual and temporal superiors.

2. Our spiritual superiors are the Pope, the bishop and the parish priest. Our temporal superiors are the Chief of the State, whether crowned head or president, and those who act under his authority, our employers, and in the case of the young, their guardians and teachers.

3. We are bound to respect our spiritual and temporal superiors, to obey them in all matters in which they have a right to command us, and to pray for them.

4. As regards bishops and priests we read « Let the priests that rule well be esteemed worthy of double honour, especially those who labour in the word and doctrine. » (I Tim. V, 17.) Then again see how the Galatians must have loved and honoured St. Paul for this latter to have expressed himself thus: « For I bear you witness that if it could be done, you would have plucked out your own eyes and would have given them to me. » (Gal. IV,15.)

5. It is our duty also to support our priests. « Who », asks St. Paul, « serveth as a soldier at any time at his own charges? » (I Cor. IX, 7.) And is it not written in Ecclesiasticus? « Give honour to the priests. Give them their portion, as it commanded thee, of the first fruits and of purifications. » (VII, 33-34.) We must contribute more particularly to the needs of the Sovereign Pontiff, especially now that he has been despoiled of his States.

6. As regards obedience the apostle Paul says: « Obey your prelates and be subject to them. For they watch as being to render an account of your souls. » (Heb. XIII, 17.) Our Lord commands us to obey even bad priests, if the advice they give is good. « The Scribes and Pharisees have sitten on the chair of Moses. All things therefore whatsoever they shall say to you, observe and do. But according to their works do ye not; for they say, and do not. » (Matt. XXIII, 2-3.)

7. We must also help them with our prayers; for they sacrifice their time, their health and their lives for the good of our souls, although ingratitude is only too often their reward.

8. What precedes applies also to kings, princes, governors and all those to whom we are subject. The apostle Paul, in his epistle to the Romans, treats at length of the honour, consideration and respect due to them. Moreover he enjoins us to pray for them.

9. St. Peter says: « Be ye subject therefore to every human creature for God’s sake, whether it be to the king as excelling, or to governors as sent by him. » (I Pet. II, 13-14.) For in honouring them we honour God, who has put them over us.

10. It is never permitted to rise up against authority, because, in the first place, God forbids it, and, in second place, a revolt against constituted authority invariably brings in its train many serious evils for society.

11. When called upon to nominate or elect a member of some public body, be it merely the casting of our vote, we owe it to our country as well as to our conscience to select or vote for only such a candidate as honours God, religion, the law and true Christian liberty.

12. Should however our parents or other superiors require us to do something contrary to the law of God, it would be our bounden duty, without forgetting the respect that is their due, to tell them that our conscience forbids us to do it, because we have to obey God before men.

13. For all these reasons it is sinful to belong to any secret society that plots against the Church or State (even a foreign State). Masonic lodges, even when is no reason to believe that they plot against Church or State, are included, because they are secret societies and are condemned by the Church.

Explanation of the Plate.

14. At the top on the left, the Pope, supported by cardinals, is receiving the homage of kings, rulers, soldiers and others and on the right a king receiving the homage of his subjects.

15. In the picture in the middle we see Ruth and Noemi, her mother-in-law, whom she followed from her own land of Moab to Bethlehem. Ruth offers to the world a touching example of filial piety by the way she brought to Noemi the ears of wheat she painfully gleaned for her support. (Ruth II, 18.)

16. Below on the left we see well-behaved studious children listening with attention and respect to their teachers, and on the right, the terrible punishment inflicted on forty-two wicked boys who insulted the prophet Eliseus, shouting at him: « Go up, thou baldhead! » Two bears came out and tore them to pieces. (II Kings II, 23-24.)

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture 36

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture no. 36

THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Fourth Commandment (cont.): Honour thy father and thy mother.

 

Duty of parents towards their children.

1. Parents are bound (1) to provide for the needs of their children, (2) to give them a Christian upbringing, (3) to correct them when necessary, and (4) to set them a good example.

2. First and foremost, parents should love all their children equally, with a Christian tenderness and without weakness as regards their faults and defects.

3. Parents should look upon their children as precious treasure confided to their keeping by God, for which they will have to render a strict account to Him.

4. By saying that parents must provide for the needs of their children we mean that they must feed and clothe them, bring them up according to their means and social position and give them a proper start in life.

5. By a Christian upbringing we mean that the children should (1) be taught their prayers and the principal articles of their faith, (2) be sent to catechism and, as far as may be possible, to a school where they will receive religious instruction, (3) be brought up to love God and avoid sin, (4) be sent to confession and to make their first communion as soon as they attain the age of reason (see p. 51, 3rd and 4th. Commandments of the Church, and (5) not be interfered with if they receive the religious call.

6. Before giving their children a trade or profession parents must seek by prayer the will of God, give them good advice and leave them at perfect liberty to obey the Divine call, should they receive it, for the religious life.

7. Parents cannot do better than to desire for their children obedience to the voice of God, as we learn from Christ’s reply to the mother of the apostles James and John:

« Then came to Him the mother of the sons of Zebedee with her sons, adoring and asking something of Him. Who said to her: « What wilt thou? » She saith to Him: « Say that these my two sons may sit, the one on Thy right hand and the other on Thy left in Thy Kingdom. » And Jesus answering, said: « You know not what you ask. Can you drink the chalice that I shall drink » They say to Him, « We can. » He saith to them: « My chalice indeed you shall drink, but to sit on My right or left hand, is not Mine to give to you, but to them for whom it is prepared by My Father. » «And the ten hearing it, were moved to indignation against the two brethren. But Jesus called to Him and said: « You know that the princes of the Gentiles lord it over them, and they that are the greater exercise power upon them. It shall not be so among you, but whosoever shall be the greater among you, let him be your minister, and he that will be first among you, shall be your servant; even as the Son of Man is not come to be ministered unto, for many but to minister and to give His life a redemption for many. » (Matt. XX, 20-28.)

8. By correction of their children we mean that parents should keep a close watch over the conduct of their children, reproving and punishing them when they do wrong, but this without any show of temper and with no other object than that of making them better.

9. As regards giving good example we mean that the parents themselves should practice their religion – say their prayers, go to mass and the sacraments, and refrain from everything that might lead their children into sin, such as blaspheming, scandal mongering, using improper language and scoffing at religion.

Explanation of the Plate.

10. The central picture shows St. Ann teaching Our Blessed Lady to read. Behind Mary stands her father, St. Joachim, her father, who is regarding her with a tender interest.

11. At the top on the right we see Blanche of Castille teaching St. Louis to pray, as she says to him: « My son, I would rather see you dead than find you committing a mortal sin. »

12. To the left of the above is shown a nobleman making his young son beg pardon of a poor man, to whom be had failed to give due respect.

13. The two small pictures at the bottom are given to warn parents, through the example of the high priest Heli, how terribly they may be punished if they fail in their duty to correct their children. Heli had two sons, Ophni and Phinees, who were leading away Israel from the worship of God. This was the result of Heli having spoilt them by too much indulgence. Thus the divine wrath fell upon him as well as on his sons. Hearing the news that the Ark of the Covenant had fallen into the hands of the Philistines and that the two sons had perished with thirty thousand Israelites, the old man suddenly fell back and broke his neck (I Kings, IV.)

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture 37

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture no. 37

THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Fourth Commandment (concl.): Honour thy father and thy mother.

 

Duties of masters and mistresses towards their servants.

1. It is the duty of Masters and Mistresses (1) to be kind and just towards their servants, (2) to look after them in health and in sickness, (3) to watch over their morals, and (4) to see that they serve God and are well grounded in their religion, if they are Catholics, and if they are not Catholics, to pray that God may vouchsafe to them the grace of conversion.

2. Masters and mistresses must also see that their servants do their work properly, and, if these are Catholics, give them every facility for fulfilling their religious duties – the due observance of Sunday, abstaining on the appointed days, communicating at Easter.

3. These various obligations imposed on masters and mistresses are based on the words of Holy Writ. In his Epistle to the Hebrews (XIII, 17) St. Paul says that masters have to render an account of the souls of those subject to them.

Explanation of the Plate.

4. In the large picture and in the small one on the left are given two touching examples of masters faithfully fulfilling doing their duties by their servants. The first is that of the centurion:

« And when He had entered into Capharnaum there came to Him a Centurion, beseeching Him, and saying: « Lord, my servant lieth at home sick of the palsy and is grievously tormented. » And Jesus saith to him: « I will come and heal him. » And the centurion making answer, said: « Lord, I am not worthy that thou should enter under my roof; but only say the word and my servant shall be healed. For I also am a man subject to authority, having under me soldiers, and I say to this, Go, and he goeth, and to another, Come, and he cometh, and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it. » And Jesus hearing this, marvelled and said to them that followed Him: « Amen, I say to you, I have not found so great faith in Israel. And I say to you that many shall come from the east and west and shall sit down with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom shall be cast out into exterior darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. » And Jesus said to the centurion: « Go, and as thou hast believed, so be it done to thee. » And his servant was healed at the same hour. » (Matt. VIII, 5-13.)

5. The centurion is on his knees at the feet of Jesus, Who has His apostles round Him. Two servants who have accompanied the centurion, are seen standing respectfully behind their master.

6. The other example, illustrated in the small picture on the left, is that of St. Elzéar, Count of Sabran in Provence. Having drawn up a Rule of Life for his servants, he posted it up in one of the finest apartments of his palace and assembled his servants there to explain it to them. We give below the principal rules it contained.
Rule of life.

1. Say your morning and night prayers
2. Attend Mass.
3. Go often to the Sacraments.
4. Have a special devotion for the Blessed Virgin and to St. Joseph.
5. Never be idle.
6. Shun evil company.
7. Avoid quarrels, etc.

St. Elzéar is represented standing on a dais facing his servants and showing them the Rule. A crucifix and a statue of Our Lady adorn the
apartment. St. Delphine, his wife, is present and, with her maids of honour, forms the small group on his left.
Duties of servants towards their masters.

7. Servants must (1) respect their masters, (2) render them faithful service, and (3) obey them in every thing that is not contrary to the law of God.

8. Servants should look upon their masters as God’s representatives and should therefore in conscience obey them as they would God Himself.

9. The small picture on the right shows Eliezer, who serves as a remarkable model of fidelity to servants of all degrees. He was sent on a long journey to Mesopotamia to find a wife for Isaac, his young master. Bringing with him rich presents, he is seen standing near a well with his camels. Rebecca, grand-daughter of Nachor, Abraham’s brother, having come to the well at the same time with some companions to draw water, is offering him a drink. In this sign Eliezer sees the will of God and gives her in return the rich gifts he has brought with him. (Gen. XXIV.)

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture 38

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture no. 38

THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Fifth Commandment: Thou shalt not kill.

 

1. The Fifth Commandment forbids (1) homicide, (2) suicide, (3) bodily violence of every kind, (5) anger, (6) hatred, (6) quarreling, (8) revenge, (9) injurious language, (10) scandal, in which included bad example.
Homicide. Bodily violence.

2. Homicide is taking the life of another deliberately and without justification. Inflicting bodily hurt is the first step to homicide, and may under unfortunate circumstances even directly result in death.

3. If any one causes the death of another accidentally, he is not guilty, provided the act from which death resulted was not a rash act, such as firing off a gun in a certain direction without first assuring oneself that there were no people in the way.

4. There is justification only (1) in the case of a combatant in time of war; (2) when carrying out the death penalty; and (3) when acting in self-defence or in defence of another unjustly attacked. It is lawful for the protection of one’s own life, limbs, chastity or valuable property to repel violence with violence even to the point of killing the assailant, provided the limits of a blameless defence are not exceeded.

5. It is a great sin even to desire the death of another or rejoice at it from motives of hatred or self interest.
Suicide.

6. Suicide is never justifiable, for our life belongs to God, Who alone may dispose of it as He pleases.

7. The man who attempts his own life runs the risk of being eternally damned, as the chances are against his surviving long enough to have an opportunity for due repentance.

8. The suicide’s sin is so grave that they cannot receive a Christian burial unless it is certain that he was of unsound mind at the time he attempted his own death.
Duelling.

9. It is wrong to wish for one’s own death, except as a desire to be with God in heaven or to be for ever beyond the reach of sin.

10. In duelling one or both adversaries may be killed and thus go to hell without any chance of repentance. Seconds are just as guilty as the principals.

Anger, hatred, quarrelling and injurious language.

11. These four sins are intimately connected one with another. « A passionate man provoketh quarrels. » (Prov. XV, 18.) And again: « Hatred stirreth up strife. (Prov. X, 12.)

12. To hate one’s neighbour is not to be a disciple of Jesus Christ, Who said that His disciples would be known by the love they bear one another:

« You have heard it that it hath been said: « An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth! But I say to you not to resist evil, but if one strike thee on thy right cheek, turn to him also the other. And if a man will contend with thee in judgment and take away thy coat, let go thy cloak also unto him. And whosoever will force thee one mile, go with him other two. »

« Give to him that asketh of thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not away. You have heard that it was said: « Thou shalt love thy neighbour and hate thy enemy. » But I say to you: « Love your enemies; do good to them that hate you and pray for them that persecute and calumniate you; that you may be the children of your Father who is in heaven, Who maketh His sun to rise upon the good and bad, and raineth upon the just and the unjust. For if you love them that love you, what reward shall you have? Do not even the publicans do this? And if you salute your brethren only, what do you more? Do not also the heathens this? »

« Be you therefore perfect, as also Your Heavenly Father is perfect. » (Matt. V, 38-48.)

13. We are not allowed to revenge ourselves on those who have offended us. St Paul, in his Epistle to the Romans (XII,19), recalls the words of Deuteronomy (XXXII, 35): « Revenge is mine, and I will repay them in due time, saith the Lord. »

Explanation of the Plate.

14. In the large picture we see Cain, who has just killed his brother, Abel. As he preparing for flight, God confronts him, reproaches him for his terrible crime, and curses him and drives him out of His presence. (Gen. IV.)

15. At the bottom on the left we see Achitophel, who has hanged himself after having by his evil counsel driven Absalom into usurping the throne of David his father. (II Kings XVII, 23.)

16. The other small picture shows two men who have begun to fight a duel. A devout Christian rushes in between them, stopping the fight with one hand and with the other pointing to the cross behind them.

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture 39

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture no. 39

THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Fifth Commandment (cont.): Thou shalt not kill.

 

Scandal. Bad example.

1. The Fifth Commandment also forbids giving of scandal.

2. By scandal is meant any word, act or omission (whether actually wicked or only seemingly so does not matter) designed or likely to cause another person to fall into sin.

3. The most potent causes of scandal are (1) language contrary to religion, charity or purity, (2) bad example, and (3) advice calculated to lead one’s neighbour into sin or to turn him away from virtue.

4. We scandalize (give scandal to) our neighbour by putting in his way irreligious or immoral literature, and, what is even worse, by writing or publishing such literature.

5. It is a grievous sin to give scandal, for the result is often the loss of a soul whom Our Lord shed His precious blood to redeem. And then not unfrequently scandal, once given, is irreparable.

6. There are however some people who, deliberately putting a bad meaning on absolutely harmless words and acts, pretend to be scandalized thereby. Such were the Pharisees who saw evil in the most blameless things uttered or done by Our Lord and His apostles, as the two following extracts from the Gospel of St Mark will show.

« John answered Him, saying: « Master, we saw one casting out devils in Thy name, who followeth not us, and we forbad him. » But Jesus said: « Do not forbid him. For there is no man that doth a miracle in My name, and can soon speak ill of me. For he that is not against you is for you. For whosoever shall give you to drink a cup of water in My name, because you belong to Christ, Amen, I say to you, he shall not lose his reward.

And whosoever shall scandalize one of these little ones that believe in Me, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck and he were cast into the sea. And if thy hand scandalize thee, cut it off. It is better for thee to enter into life maimed than, having two hands, to go into hell, into unquenchable fire, where their worm dieth not and the fire is not extinguished. And if thy foot scandalize thee, cut it off. It is better for thee to enter lame into life everlasting than, having two feet, to be cast into the hell of unquenchable fire, where their worm dieth not and the fire is not extinguished. And if thy eye scandalise thee, pluck it out. It is better for thee with one eye to enter into the kingdom of God than, having two eyes to be cast into hell of fire, where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not extinguished. For every one shall be salted with salt. Salt is good. But if the salt become unsavoury, wherewith will you season it? Have salt in you and have peace among you. » (Mark IX, 37-49.)

« And there assembled together unto Him the Pharisees and some of the scribes, coming from Jerusalem. And when they had seen some of His disciples eat bread with common, that is, with unwashed hands, they found fault. For the Pharisees and all the Jews eat not without often washing their hands, holding the tradition of the ancients; and when they come from the market, unless they be washed, they eat not. And many other things there are that have been delivered to them to observe, the washings of cups and of pots, and of brazen vessels, and of beds.

« And the Pharisees and Scribes asked Him: « Why do not Thy disciples walk according to the tradition of the ancients, but they eat bread with common hands? » But He answering, said to them: « Well did Isaias prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written: This people honoureth Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me. And in vain do they worship Me, teaching doctrines and precepts of men. For leaving the commandment of God, you hold the tradition of men, the washings of pots and of cups; and many other things you do like to these! » (Mark VII, 1-8.)

7. If we have given scandal to any one, it is our duty at once the mischief to the utmost of our power (1) by drawing him away from the evil into which we have led him, (2) by inciting him to virtue by good example, and (3) by praying for him.

8. If we fail in this obvious duty, salving our consciences with the reflection that we are only acting as others do, we shall be greatly to blame and show an utter lack of common sense, for if they are willing to lose their souls, that is no reason why we should lose ours.

Explanation of the Plate.

9. Here we see Our Lord standing in the midst of His disciples as He points with one hand to the child He has called to Himself, and, with the other, to the man who in the Parable just cited, having scandalized one of His little ones, has deserved to be cast into the sea with a millstone round his neck.

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THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Fifth Commandment (concl.): Thou shalt not kill.

 

What it commands us to do.

1. The Fifth Commandment requires us (1) to pardon our enemies, (2) to be reconciled to them, (3) to do good to them when we can, and (4) to help those among them who are in want.

2. Our first duty towards our enemies is to forgive them, and next to be reconciled to them.

3. These two duties are so peremptory that Christ Himself says that God will not pardon those who refuse to pardon others and be reconciled to them.

« Do not think that I am come to destroy the law, of the prophets. I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. For amen I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall not pass of the law till all be fulfilled. He therefore that shall break one of these least commandments and shall so teach men, shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven. But he that shall do and teach, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I tell you unless your justice abound, more than that of the Scribes and Pharisees, you shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. »

« You have heard that it was said to them of old: « Thou shalt not kill. And whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment. » But I say to you that whosoever is angry with his brother, shall be in danger of the judgment. And whosoever shall say to his brother. « Raca », shall be in danger of the council. And whosoever shall say, « Thou fool », shall be in danger of hell fire. If therefore thou offer thy gift at the altar and there thou remember that thy brother hath anything against thee, leave there thy offering before the altar and go first to be reconciled to thy brother, and then coming thou shalt offer thy gift. »

« Be at agreement with thy adversary betimes whilst thou art in the way with him, lest perhaps the adversary deliver thee to the judge and the judge deliver thee to the officer and thou be cast into prison. Amen I say to thee, thou shalt not go out from thence till thou repay the last farthing. » (Matt. V, 17-26.)

4. We have another equally explicit declaration of Our Lord, which shows that the command to forgive admits of no exception whatsoever:
« Then came Peter unto Him and said: « Lord, how often shall my brother offend me and I forgive him? Till seven times? » Jesus saith to him: « I say not to the till seven times, but till seventy times seven times. Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likened to a king who would take an account of his servants. And when he had begun to take the account, one was brought to him that owed him ten thousand talents; and as he had not wherewith to pay it, his lord commanded that he should be sold, and his wife and children and all that he had, and payment to be made. But that servant falling down besought him, saying: « Have patience with me and I will pay thee all. » And the lord of that servant being moved with pity, let him go and forgave him the debt. « But when that servant was gone out, he found one of his fellow-servants that owed him an hundred pence; and laying hold of him, he throttled him saying: « Pay what thou owest. » And his fellow servant falling down besought him saying: « Have patience with me and I will pay thee all. » And he would not, but cast him into prison, till he paid the debt. Now his fellow-servants, seeing what was done, were very much grieved, and they came and told their lord all that was done. »
« Then his lord called him and said to him: « Thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all the debt, because thou besoughtest me. Shouldst not thou then have had compassion also on thy fellow-servant, even as I had compassion on thee? And his lord, being angry, delivered him to the tortures until he paid all the debt. So shall My Heavenly Father do to you, if you forgive not everyone his brother from your hearts. » (Matt. XVIII, 21-35.)

5. Our further duty towards our enemies is to do good to them when we have the chance.

Explanation of the Plate.

6. The small picture on the right shows St. Cyprian the Martyr, who just before his execution made his friends present the executioner with a sum of money.

7. The large picture depicts St. Stephen, deacon and first martyr, who gave to the world an admirable example of how we ought to pardon our enemies. On his knees, his eyes raised towards heaven, he addressed to the Almighty this beautiful prayer for the Jews who were stoning him to death: « Lord, lay not this sin to their charge. » (Acts VII, 59.) And suddenly the heavens opened and he saw God welcoming him with extended arms. An angel is presenting to him the martyr’s palm, while another holds over him the crown awaiting him in heaven.

8. The small picture on the left represents the reconciliation between the two brothers Jacob and Esau. (Gen. XXXIII, 1-15.)

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THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Sixth Commandment: Thou shalt not commit adultery.

 

1. By this Commandment are forbidden all immodest acts, words and looks, and generally everything that tends to impurity.

2. The sin of impurity is one strictly to be avoided, firstly, because more than any other sin it destroys in our souls the likeness of God to which we have been created, by bringing us down to the level of beasts, and secondly, because it defiles our bodies, which are members of Christ and temples of the Holy Ghost.

3. Among other effects due to impurity are impairment of the intellect, decay and loss of faith and a premature death.

4. The most effective way of avoiding falling into habits of impurity is to say regularly one’s morning and night prayers, to have a special devotion for the Blessed Virgin Mary, to go frequently to confession and communion and to fly all occasions of danger.

5. In addition one must mortify oneself, for there are evil spirits that can be chased away only by prayer and fasting, as Our Lord Himself tells us:

« And one of the multitude answering, said: « Master, I have brought my son to Thee, having a dumb spirit, who, wheresoever he taketh him, dasheth him, and he foameth and gnasheth with the teeth and pineth away. And I spoke to Thy disciples to cast him out and they could not. » Who answering them, said: « O incredulous generation, how long shall I be with you? How long shall I suffer you? Bring him unto me. » And they brought him. And when he had seen him, immediately the spirit troubled him; and being thrown down upon the ground, he rolled about foaming. And He asked his father: « How long time is it since this hath happened unto him? » But he said: « From his infancy. And oftentimes hath he cast him into the fire and into waters to destroy him. But if Thou canst do anything, help us, having compassion on us. » And Jesus saith to him: «

If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth. » And immediately the father of the boy, crying out, with tears said: « I do believe, Lord; help my unbelief. » And when Jesus saw the multitude running together, he threatened the unclean spirit, saying to him: « Deaf and dumb spirit, I command thee, go out of him, and enter not any more into him. » And crying out, and greatly tearing him, he went out of him, and he became as dead, so that many said: « He is dead. » But Jesus taking him by the hand, lifted him up, and he arose. »
« And when He was come into the house, His disciples secretly asked Him: « Why could not we can cast him out? » And He said to them: « This kind can go out by nothing but prayer and fasting. » (Mark IX, 16-28.)

6. The usual causes of impurity are idleness, bad books, bad newspapers, bad pictures, bad songs, bad company, luxurious living, love of finery, the stage, dancing, and excess in eating and drinking.

Explanation of the Plate.

7. The large picture portrays the Deluge, in which all men perished except Noah and his family. God sent this terrible retribution to punish men, because they had given themselves up to all kinds of sin, especially to that of impurity. Noah, who loved and practiced virtue, was saved. While everyone else was swallowed up in the rising waters, he was sheltered in the Ark which God had commanded him to build and which safely rode the flood. (Gen. VI, VII.)

8. Of the three small pictures, the middle one shows the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah by fire rained down from heaven. God destroyed these two cities because their inhabitants were steeped in the sin of impurity. Lot, Abraham’s nephew, being a just man, was saved. Warned by angels, he left Sodom with his wife and daughters, before the rain of fire began. Lot’s wife was turned into a pillar of salt for looking back, in spite of the angels’ warning, at the burning cities. (Gen. XIX.)

9. In the small picture on the right we see Samson asleep at the feet of a wicked woman named Dalila, for whom he had conceived an impure passion. This passion had so blinded him, that he disclosed to her the secret that his prodigious strength lay in his hair. Dalila accordingly got his head shaved as he lay asleep and gave him up to the Philistines, who put out his eyes and condemned him to the task of turning a mill. (Judg. XVI .)

10. The small picture on the left shows the two sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, putting to the sword the king of Sichen, who had ravished their sister Dina, and with him, his father Hemor, and all the male Sichemites. Thus avenged, Dina was rescued by her other brothers, who at the same time carried off the women of the Sichemites, together with their children and beasts. (Gen. XXXIV.)

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THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Seventh Commandment: Thou shalt not steal.

 

1. By this Commandment we are forbidden (1) to take unjustly what belongs to another, (2) to retain it unjustly if it is in our possession, or (3) to cause him wrongful loss in any other way.

2. Those who take unjustly what is not theirs include thieves and robbers, dishonest domestic and other servants, fraudulent merchants and tradesmen, corrupt magistrates and judges, usurers and, speaking generally, every one who appropriates what is not his own against the owner’s will.

3. Children who steal from their parents sin against this Commandment, because what they take does not belong to them.

4. It is of course always a sin to take unjustly what does not belong to you, but in any particular case the gravity of the sin will depend on the value of the thing taken.

5. Yet under certain circumstances even a mere petty theft may become a mortal sin, as, for instance, when the loss is a heavy one for the victim or when the theft is intended to be only one of a series involving a high value in the aggregate.

6. One is guilty of unjustly retaining property (1) if he receives stolen goods; (2) if having accidentally found something, he fails to use due diligence in restoring it to the owner; (3) if he interferes with the rightful succession to legacies; (4) if he misuses or fails to restore trust property in his keeping; (5) if he sweats his servants or keeps back their wages; or (6) if he evades paying his just debts; and so on.

7. We cause wrongful loss to our neighbour (1) if we injure or destroy anything belonging to him, or (2) if by unfair means we prevent him from earning his legitimate profits. We are equally guilty whether the loss is due exclusively and entirely to our own action or we are only accomplices or even mere accessories.

8. Read the advice St. John the Baptist gave to the crowds who came to confess to him the wrong they had done to others:
« For now the axe is laid to the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be cut down and cast into the fire ». And the people asked him, saying, « What then shall we do? » And he answering, said to them, « He that hath two coats, let him give to him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do in like manner. »

« And the publicans also came to be baptized , and said to him: « Master, what shall we do? » But he said to them: « Do nothing more than that which is appointed you. » And the soldiers also asked him, saying: « And what shall we do? » And he said to them, « Do violence to no man, neither calumniate any man, and be content with your pay. »
« And as the people was of opinion, and all were thinking in their hearts of John, that he might perhaps be the Christ, John answered, saying unto all: « I indeed baptize you with water; but there shall come one mightier than I, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to loose; He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and He will purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into His barn, but the chaff He will burn with unquenchable fire. » (Luke III, 9-17.)

Explanation of the Plate.

9. In the small picture on the left we see the elder Tobias, become blind and poor after having possessed great wealth and practised charity on a wide scale. His wife had to work to support him and their young son. Being one day presented with a kid, and hearing it bleat, he at once cried: « Take heed, lest perhaps it be stolen, restore ye it to its owners, for it is not lawful for us either to eat or touch anything that cometh by theft. » (Tob. II, 21.)

10. The large picture represents the death of Achab, king of Israel. Achab wanted to acquire by exchange a vineyards belonging to a Jezrahelite named Naboth, who however declined to part with his family inheritance. Acting under the advice of his wife Jezabel, a woman more wicked than himself, he had Naboth put to death on a false charge and then possessed himself of his vineyard. The prophet Elias went to Achab and delivered this message:

« Thus saith the Lord, in this place, wherein the dogs have licked the blood of Naboth, they shall lick thy blood also. » (I Kings, XXI, 19) Later, being at war, Achab went to battle completely disguised so as to escape recognition, but a chance arrow struck him in the breast and he died. The blood that flowed from his wound was licked up by dogs, as Elias had predicted. (Ibid. XXII, 38.)

11. The small picture on the right shows Achan, an Israelite, who was condemned by Joshua to die a terrible death for having, against the divine command, appropriated after the capture of Jericho « a scarlet garment exceedingly good, and two hundred sicles of silver and a golden rule of fifty sicles. » He was stoned to death and all his property was set on fire and destroyed. (Jos. VII, 10-25.)

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THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Seventh Commandment (Concl.): Thou shalt not steal.

 

1. Bad servants offend against this Commandment by cheating their employer, or by causing him loss through carelessness and inattention in the performance of their duties.

2. Servants should be faithful, exact and honest even in the smallest details. Read what Christ says: « And I say to you: « Make unto you friends of Mammon of inequity, that when you shall fail they may receive you into everlasting dwellings. He that is faithful in that which is least, is faithful also in that which is greater; and he that is unjust in that which is little, is unjust also that which is greater. If then you have not been faithful in the unjust Mammon, who will trust you with that which is the true? And, if you have been faithful in that which is another’s, who will give you that which is your own? No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hold to the one, and despise the other. You cannot serve both God and Mammon. » (Luke XVI, 9-13.)

3. It is a grave breach of this Commandment to sue any one in a court of law for money or property to which one has no rightful claim.

4. In every case of wrongful acquisition of, or injury done to, another man’s property, restitution should be made as soon as possible and compensation as well given for any loss directly or indirectly resulting therefrom.

5. Such restitution, when it is possible, is absolutely imperative, for unless and until it is made, the sin committed will not be forgiven. The case of Zacheus, which we cite below, is to the point:

« And Jesus entering in, He walked through Jericho. And behold there was a man named Zacheus, who was the chief of the publicans, and he was rich. And he sought to see Jesus who He was, and he could not for the crowd because he was low of stature. And running before, he climbed up into a sycamore tree that he might see Him, for He was to pass that way. And when Jesus was come to the place, looking up, He saw him, and said to him: « Zacheus, make haste and come down, for this day I must abide in thy house. » And he made haste and came down and received Him with joy.

« And when all saw it, they murmured, saying that He was gone to be a guest with a man that was a sinner. But Zacheus standing said to the Lord: « Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor, and if I have wronged any man of anything, I restore him fourfold. »

« Jesus said to him: « This day is salvation gone to this house, because he also is a son of Abraham. For the Son of Man is come to seek and to save that which was lost. » (Luke XIX, 1-10.)

6. Not only must the actual author of the wrong make the required restitution, but every other individual as well who is any way responsible for it.

7. Such will be (1) those who abetted by advice or command or in any other way, (2) those who received the stolen property, and (3) even those who, having been in a position to prevent the wrong, failed to do so.

8. Responsibility for the restitution rests on the persons concerned in the following order: first and foremost, on the person in actual possession of the wrongfully acquired property; next, on the person, by whose advice or order the wrong was done; and lastly, on the actual perpetrator and on those who directly assisted him.

9. Restitution should be made to the owner or, should he have deceased, to the heir.

10. Even persons who have inherited wrongfully acquired property are bound to restore it, for under no circumstances is it right to retain what belongs to another.

11. If the person from whom the restitution is due does not know who the owner is, he should seek and follow due advice.

12. In making the restitution, the property wrongfully acquired should itself be handed back, if it still exists, as nearly as possible in its original condition; otherwise its full value should be given.

13. If he is unable to do either, the firm purpose of some day making the restitution when he is able should never be out of his mind, and he ought to spare no effort to effect it as soon as possible.

14. The best way to observe the Seventh Commandment is ever to have as much respect for another man’s property as for one’s own.

Explanation of the Plate.

15. The large picture shows the angel Raphael claiming back from Gabelus the sum of money which the elder Tobias had lent him. So far from denying the debt, Gabelus at once handed the money to the angel. (Tob. IX, 3-6.)

16. Below on the right a man of position in seen stripping every stitch of clothing off a poor man’s back under threat of an unjust and ruinous law-suit.

17. Opposite we observe an unfaithful servant who has wasted his master’s goods.

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THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Eighth Commandment: Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.

 

1. The things forbidden by this Commandment are (1) false evidence, (2) lies, (3) calumny or slander, (4) detraction or backbiting, and (5) rash judgments.

False Evidence.

2. Here we refer only to untrue statements knowingly made in a court law.

3. It is always a mortal sin to give false evidence. He who gives it breaks also the Second Commandment by becoming a perjurer, since he is under oath to speak the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. Also the false evidence may and often does result in injustice to individuals or even to a whole class, e. g., the condemnation of an innocent man, undeserved loss of property or reputation, unfair treatment of a particular class.

4. The perjurer is bound to repair as far as he can the wrong he has done.

5. Equally guilty with the perjurer is the man who produces such a witness, or who concocts false titles to property or special privileges, or, being himself in authority, sentences or procures others to sentence an innocent person.

Explanation of the Plate.

6. In the large picture we see Our Lord taken by the Jews before Pilate, who is on his judgment seat. One of the Jews, pointing with one hand to Jesus, declares that he has heard Him tell the people that they ought not to pay tribute to Caesar. Now we know that this was untrue, for Jesus had on the contrary told them to « render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s. (Matt. XXII, 21.)

7. Here is another instance of false evidence given, of which Our Lord was again the victim: « And the chief priests and all the council sought for evidence against Jesus that they might put Him to death and found none. For many bore false witness against Him and their evidence were not agreeing. And some rising up, bore false witness against Him, saying: « We heard Him say, I will destroy this temple made with hands and within three days I will build another not made with hands. » And their witness did not agree. And the high priest rising up in the midst, asked Jesus, saying: « Answerest thou nothing to the things that are laid to thy charge by these men? » But He held His peace and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked Him and said to Him: « Art thou the Christ the son of the blessed God? » And Jesus said to him: « I am. And you shall see the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of the power of God and coming with the clouds of heaven. » (Mark XIV, 55-62.)

8. In the small picture on the left we see Jezabel, wife of Achab, king of Israel, being devoured by dogs. This wicked woman, wishing to put away Naboth who had refused to give up to Achab « the inheritance of his fathers », suborned two men to falsely swear that he had blasphemed against God and the king. Naboth was in consequence condemned and stoned to death. But Jezebel’s crime did not go unpunished. Achab’s successor, Jehu, who is shown in the picture on horseback, had her thrown down from the top of the palace and down her body was devoured by dogs. (II Kings XXI.)

9. A further instance is that of the Jews who gave false testimony against St. Stephen, as related in the Acts of the Apostles: « And the word of the Lord increased and the number of the disciples was multiplied in Jerusalem exceedingly. A great multitude also of the priests obeyed the faith. And Stephen full of grace and fortitude did great wonders and signs among the people. Now there arose some of that which is called the synagogue of the Libertines and of the Cyrenians, and of the Alexandrians, and of them that were of Cilicia and Asia, disputing with Stephen. And they were not able to resist the wisdom and the spirit that spoke. Then they suborned men to say, they had heard him speak words of blasphemy against Moses and against God. And they stirred up the people and the ancients and the scribes, and running together, they took him and brought him to the council. And they set up false witnesses who said: « This man ceaseth not to speak words against the holy place and the law. For we have heard him say that this Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place and shall change the traditions which Moses delivered unto us. » (Acts, VI, 7-14.)

10. In the small picture on the right we see Daniel, then only a boy of twelve. In front of him stands Susanna supported by her relations and friends. The two old men on the dais behind her had falsely sworn that they had surprised her in the act of committing an abominable sin, and she had consequently been condemned to death and was about to be led out to be stoned. It was at this point that the boy Daniel cried out that she was innocent. He proved that the two elders had given false testimony, with the result that it was they who were put to death. (Dan. XIII.)

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THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Eighth Commandment (contd.): Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.

 

Lying.

1. To tell a lie is to say, with the deliberate intention of deceiving, some thing which speaker believes to be untrue.

2. We say « believes to be untrue », and not, as one might expect, « is untrue or false », because what he believes to be false, may in reality be true. As regards the existence of a « deliberate intention of deceiving », strictly speaking such intention may even be absent, as in the exceptional case of a well-known habitual liar whom no one believes.

3. There are three classes of lies, viz., (1) the jocose lie, (2) the officious lie, (3) the injurious or hurtful lie.

4. A jocose lie is one that is told in joke for one’s own amusement or that of others.

5. An officious or write lie is one that is told for some useful purpose or for the benefit of one’s neighbour.

6. An injurious or hurtful lie is told with the object of injuring one’s neighbour.

7. Of these three kinds of lies the injurious lie is the worst and becomes a mortal sin if the resulting injury to the property or reputation of the victim is at all serious.

8. It is never permissible to tell a lie, even to exculpate oneself or to render a service to our neighbour.

9. A lie is always a sin, since being opposed to the truth, it is an insult to God who is the truth itself.

Explanation of the Plate.

10. In the large picture we see St. Peter and before him the woman Saphira, who drops down dead at his feet.
« But a certain man named Amanias, with Saphira his wife, sold a piece of land, and by fraud kept back part of the price of the land, his wife being privy thereunto; and bringing a certain part of it, laid it at the feet of the apostles. But Peter said: « Amanias, why hath Satan tempted thy heart that thou shouldst lie to the Holy Ghost, and by fraud keep part of the price of the land? Whilst it remained, did it not remain to thee? And after it was sold, was it not in thy power? Why hast thou conceived this thing in thy heart? Thou hast not lied to men, but to God. »
« And Amanias hearing these words, fell down, and gave up the ghost. And there came great fear upon all that heard it. And the young men rising up, removed him, and carrying him out, buried him. »
« And it was about the space of three hours after, when his wife, not knowing what had happened, came in. And Peter said to her: « Tell me, woman, whether you sold the land for so much? » And she said: « Yes, for so much. » And Peter said unto her: « Why have you agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? Behold the feet of them who have buried thy husband are at the door, and they shall carry thee out. Immediately she fell down before his feet and gave up the ghost. And the young men coming in, found her dead, and carried her out and buried her by her husband. And there came great fear upon the whole Church and upon all that heard these things. » (Acts V, 1-11.)

11. In the small picture on the left we see Eve being tempted by the serpent, who said to her: (If you eat of this fruit,) you shall not die the death, for in what day so ever you eat thereof you shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. (Gen. III, 4-5.)

12. The whole of mankind was lost by this lie of Satan, whom Our Lord calls a liar and the father of lies in the following passage from the Gospel of St. John: « Jesus therefore said to them: If God were your Father, you would indeed love Me. For from God I proceeded and came; for I came not of Myself, but He sent Me. Why do you not know My speech? Because you cannot hear My word. You are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father you will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and he stood not in the truth; because truth is not in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own, for he is a liar and the father thereof. But if I say the truth, you believe Me not. Which of you shall convince Me of sin? If I say the truth to you, why do you not believe Me? He that is of God, heareth the words of God. Therefore you hear them not, because you are not of God! » (John VIII, 42-47.)

13. The small picture on the right shows Eliseus and his servant Giezi. This latter had lied to Naaman, saying that he had been sent by the prophet to ask him for a talent of silver and two changes of garments. Having received from the Syrian General two talents of silver and two changes of garments, Giezi lied a second time, telling Eliseus that he had not left the house at all. As a punishment for this double lie, he was smitten with leprosy, « he and all his seed for ever ». (II Kings V, 20-27.)

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture 46

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture no. 46

THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Eighth Commandment (concl.): Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.

 

Calumny or Slander.

1. To calumniate or slander any one is to impute to him some fault or bad motive, or which the calumniator knows he is entirely innocent, or some defect which he is aware the person does not possess.

Detraction or Backbiting.

2. To backbite any one is to disclose without just cause his faults and defects and even to depreciate his good qualities and merits.

3. Just cause exists when the person to whom the disclosure is made is in a position to have the faults and defects in question corrected or is in danger of suffering some injury except for such disclosure.

4. The detractor commits a sin even if he keeps strictly within the truth, for charity forbids us to take away without just cause the good repute of our neighbour.

5. There is no detraction if the fault or defect is object of common knowledge or is public property, but in no case is show of malice justifiable.

6. Detraction can be a mortal sin, for St. Paul tells us that « Railers (in latin maledici: backbiters) shall not possess the kingdom of God ». (I Cor. VI, 10.)

7. Both calumny and detraction are mortal sins if what is said is per se of a grave character and does serious injury to the person’s reputation.

8. In both there may be aggravating circumstances, as, for instance, if the calumny or detraction refers to one’s superiors or to persons consecrated to God or includes a great many persons or is uttered before a number of people.

9. It is forbidden to be interested in listening to calumny and detraction, for to do so is tantamount to actually taking part in it.

10. If in our presence calumny or detraction is being indulged in, it is our duty to stop it if we can; if we cannot, we ought to try and turn the conversation into another channel or, at least, by remaining silent, show that it is displeasing to us.

11. Except with just cause, we are forbidden to carry to any one what we have heard said against him. In Proverbs (VI, 19.) we are told that « the Lord hateth him that soweth discord among brethren », i. e., the talebearer and mischief-maker.

12. The slanderer, the backbiter and the mischief-maker are bound to repair as far as they can the injury they have done to their victim.

13. To this end the slanderer must state as publicly as he can that the slanderous stories he has put into circulation have no foundation at all; the backbiter should go about extenuating, and pleading excuses for, his victim’s failings and make the most of his merits; and the mischief-maker should do his best to minimise the effects of his tale-bearing and restore friendly relations between the parties he has estranged.

Rash Judgments.

14. We judge a person rashly if we form an unfavourable opinion regarding him upon insufficient or even no grounds at all.

15. To judge rashly is wrong, because both justice and charity forbid us to think evil of any one without good and sufficient cause.

Explanation of the Plate.

16. At the top we see Joseph being led away to prison on a false charge brought against him by Putiphar’s wife. This wicked woman burning with a guilty passion for Joseph, one day pressed her suit on him; but he, unwilling to commit sin, rejected her advances and sought safety in precipitate flight, leaving behind his cloak in her grasp. She turned this fact to her advantage and accused him of attempting to violate her. Putiphar believed the calumny and cast Joseph into prison. (Gen. XXXIX.)

17. The small picture on the left shows the high priest Aaron and Mary, his sister, on their knees before the Ark of the Covenant. Observe the Almighty coming down « in the pillar of cloud. » The pair had murmured against their brother Moses. So the Lord summoned them for having calumniated His servant Moses and covered Mary with a leprosy which lasted seven days. (Num. XII.)

18. The small picture on the right shows St. Paul at Malta, where he had landed after shipwreck in a storm. He was well received by the inhabitants, who made a fire for him. as it was cold and raining. Paul, having gathered a bundle of sticks, threw them on the fire, when « a viper, coming out of the heat, fastened on to his hand. And when the barbarians saw this, they said one to another: « Undoubtedly this man is a murderer, who, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance doth not suffer him to live. » But shook of off the viper back into the fire and took no harm. (Acts. XX, 8.)

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture 47

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture no. 47

THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Ninth Commandment: Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife.

 

1. By this commandment we are forbidden to harbour any carnal thoughts or desires. Says Our Lord: « You have heard that it was said to them of old: « Thou shalt not commit adultery! But I say to you that whosoever shall look on a woman to lust after her, hath already committed adultery with her in his heart. » (Matt. V, 27-28.)

2. The difference between this and the Sixth Commandment is this, that whereas the latter forbids all outward manifestations of impurity, including immodest language, the ninth commandment forbids even the mere desire or thought of such.

3. It is desire when one is ready to satisfy it if the opportunity offered; and it is thought when, without any idea of translating it into action, the mind gloats over the idea itself.

4. The desire alone, though unsatisfied, is sinful, for we have no right to desire what it is not permitted us to do.

5. And it is sinful to harbour impure thoughts, even if the desire to commit the act itself be altogether absent.

6. It is sinful because we offend God by dwelling with pleasure on things which are intensely abhorrent to Him and harmful to us.

7. There is however no sin if the moment such thoughts present themselves we, true to our duty, thrust them away from us; and not only is there no sin, but in offering such stout resistance, we even gain for ourselves special merit. Remembering this, we ought never to lose courage, but fight bravely against all temptation.

8. To overcome temptation to impurity we must (1) remember that God’s eyes are always upon us and that we are one day to be judged by Him, (2) lift up our hearts to Him in a short prayer, (3) offer resistance to the temptation from the moment it presents itself, and (4) invoke the aid of the Blessed Virgin.

Explanation of the Plate.

9. The large picture illustrates the Gospel story of Christ and the woman, who, giving way to her evil desires, became an adulteress. (John VIII, 3-11.)
« And the Scribes and Pharisees bring unto Him a woman taken in adultery, and they set her in the midst and said to Him: « Master, this woman was even now taken in adultery. Now Moses in the Law commanded us to stone such a one, but what sayest Thou? » And this they said tempting Him that they might accuse Him. But Jesus bowing Himself down, wrote with His finger on the ground. When therefore they continued asking Him, He lifted up Himself and said to them: « He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. » And again stooping down, He wrote on the ground. But they, hearing this, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, and Jesus alone remained and the woman standing in the midst. »
« Then Jesus lifting up Himself, said to her: « Woman, where are they that accuse thee? Hath no man condemned thee? » Who said: « No man, Lord. » And Jesus said: «Neither will I condemn thee. Go and now sin no more. »

10. In the small picture on the right we see King David, and, standing before him, the prophet Nathan, who is reproaching him for his adultery with Bethsabee and the murder of her husband Uriah.
11. The small picture on the left illustrates the parable used by Nathan in order to bring home to David the enormity of his sin. « There were two men in one city, the one rich and the other poor. The rich man had exceeding many sheep and oxen, but the poor man had nothing at all but one little ewe lamb, which he had bought and nourished up, and which had grown up in his house together with his children eating of his bread and drinking of his cup and sleeping in his bosom, and it was unto him as a daughter. And when a certain stranger was come to the rich man, he spared to take of his own sheep and oxen, and to make feast for that stranger, but took the poor man’s ewe and dressed it for the man that was come to him ».

And David’s anger being exceedingly kindled against that man, he said to Nathan: « As the Lord liveth, that man that hath done this is a child of death. He shall restore the ewe fourfold, because he did this thing and had no pity! » And Nathan said to David: « Thou art the man. Thus saith the Lord God of Israel: I anointed thee king over Israel and I delivered thee from the hand of Saul, and gave thee thy master’s house, and gave thee the house of Israel and Judah, and if these things be little, I shall add far greater things unto thee. Why therefore hast thou despised the word of the Lord to do evil in my sight. Thou hast killed Urias the Hittite with the sword and hast taken his wife to be thy wife. Behold I will raise up evil against thee out of thy own house. » (II Kings XII.) The king was overwhelmed with grief and from the bottom of his heart, repentance, escaped this saving cry of penitence which God never despises: « I have sinned against the Lord. »
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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture 48

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture no. 48

THE COMMANDMENTS.

 

The Tenth Commandment: Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s goods.

 

1. By this Commandment we are forbidden to desire unjustly the possession of things belonging to another and to bear him envy for them.

2. We are further forbidden (1) to be inordinately attached to earthly things, or (2) to be too eager in their pursuit. On this subject Our Lord spoke thus: « There was a certain rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen and feasted sumptuously every day. And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, who lay at his gate full of sores, desiring to be filled with crumbs that fell from the rich man’s table, and no one did give him. Moreover the dogs came and licked his sores. And it came to pass that the beggar died and was carried by the angels into Abraham’s bosom. And the rich man also died and he was in torments, he saw Abraham afar off and Lazarus in his bosom; and he cried and said: « Father Abraham, have mercy on me and send Lazarus that he may dip the tip of his finger in water to cool my tongue, for I am tormented in this flame. ». And Abraham said to him: « Son, remember that thou didst receive good things in thy lifetime and likewise Lazarus evil things. But now he is comforted and thou art tormented; and besides all this, between us and you there is fixed a great chaos, so that they who would pass from hence to you cannot, nor from thence come hither. » And he said: « Then, father, I beseech thee that thou wouldst send him to my father’s house, for I have five brethren, that he may testify unto them lest they also come into this place of torments ». And Abraham said to him: « They have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them ». And he said: « No, father Abraham, but if one went to them from the dead, they will do penance. » And he said to him: « If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they believe if one rise again from the dead! » (Luke XVI, 19-31.)

« And He said to his disciples: « Therefore I say to you be not solicitous for your life what you shall eat, nor for your body want you shall put on. The life is more than the meat and the body is more than the raiment. Consider the ravens, for they sow not, neither do they reap, neither have they storehouse nor barn, and God feedeth them. How much are you more valuable than they! And which of you, by taking thought, can add to his stature one cubit? If then ye be not able to do so much as the least thing, why are you solicitous for the rest? Consider the lilies how they grow; they labour not, neither do they spin, but I say to you, not even Solomon in all his glory was clothed like one of these. Now if God clothed in this manner the grass that is today in the field and tomorrow is cast into the oven, how much more you, O ye of little faith! »

« And seek not you what you shall eat or what you shall drink, and be not lifted up on high. For all these things do the nations of the world seek, but your Father knoweth that you have need of these things. But seek ye first the kingdom of God and His justice, and all these things shall be added unto you » (Luke XII, 22-31.)

3. The above words mean that we must think of our salvation before every thing else; but that does not prevent us from caring within reason for the things of the world and the affairs of this life.

Explanation of the Plate.

4. In the large picture we see Heliodorus, general of the army of Seleucus, king of Syria. This prince, coveting unjustly the treasures which the temple at Jerusalem contained, ordered Heliodorus to go and seize them. When the general arrived there with his guards to commit this sacrilegious robbery, he saw suddenly appear « a horse with a terrible rider on him and he ran fiercely and struck Heliodorus with his forefeet. Moreover there appeared to other young men bright and glorious, who stood by him, one on either side, and scourged him without ceasing with many stripes. And Heliodorus suddenly fell to the ground, and they took him up covered with great darkness, and having put him into a litter, they carried him out. » (II Mach. III, 25-27.)

5. The small picture on the left illustrates the story of Naboth’s vineyard. Being situated close to the palace, it was coveted by the King, Achab, who pressed Naboth to sell it or to exchange it for another
elsewhere. As alienation of family property was forbidden by the law of Moses, Naboth refused, saying: « The Lord be merciful to me and not let me give thee the inheritance of my fathers. » (II Kings, XXI, 3.)

6. St. Eloi (small picture on the right) was the very opposite of Achab. Having been ordered by King Clotaire II to make him a chair of pure gold set with precious stones, he was given enough material for two such chairs. So far from keeping the extra gold and gems, as he might safely have done, he made two chairs and brought them to the king.

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture 49

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Catechism in Pictures – Text & picture no. 49

THE COMMANDMENTS OF THE CHURCH.

 

GENERAL REMARKS.

 

First Commandment: To keep the Sunday and Holy Days of Obligation holy by hearing Mass and resting from servile works.

1. The Church has authority from Our Lord himself to make laws: « He that heareth you heareth Me. » (Luke X, 16). Again « What things so ever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven. » (Matt. XVIII, 18). A group of the laws so made is known as the Commandments or Precepts of the Church. They impose the obligation of hearing Mass and fasting and abstaining on certain days, and of going to confession and communion at least once a year (the first four Commandments); of supporting one’s pastors (the fifth Commandment); and of observing certain restrictions with regard to marriage (the sixth Commandment). All six Commandments apply to the area of the British Empire and to the United States, but in countries where the Church has sufficient revenues of her own, the fifth is omitted, and where the restrictions of the sixth are already embodied in the special body of the laws relating to marriage, this too becomes superfluous. Thus some countries possess only four, other five Commandments of the Church.

2. The Holy Days of Obligation observed in England are seven in number, viz., Christmas Day, the Circumcision (Jan. 1), the Epiphany (Jan. 6), the Ascension, SS. Peter and Paul (June 29), the Assumption (Aug. 15), and All Saints (Nov. 1).

3. To the above are added, in Scotland St Andrew’s day (Nov. 30), and, in Ireland, St Patrick’s day (March 17) and the Annunciation (March 25). In the United States there are only six such Holy Days, viz., Christmas Day, New Year’s Day, Ascension, the Assumption, the Immaculate Conception and All Saints.

4. It is a mortal sin to neglect to hear Mass on Sundays and on Holy Days of Obligation. Hence parents, guardians, masters and mistresses sin grievously if without just cause they prevent their children, wards or servants and other persons subject to them from going to Mass on such days.

5. There are, however, circumstances which necessarily dispense one from going to Mass, as, for instance, illness, having to nurse a sick person, too great distance from church, necessity of some one person staying at home to mind the house or small children, inability to obtain leave of absence from work on a week-day, and so on.

6. There are also the so-called Days of Devotion, on which the faithful are specially recommended to hear Mass. These were at one time, when life was less strenuous, Holy Days of Obligation. For the British Empire, they are –

February. – The Purification or Candlemas Day (2nd.); St. Mathias, Apostle (24th.).
March. – St. Joseph, Spouse of the Blessed Virgin (19th.); Annunciation (not in Ireland, where – see above – it is a day of Obligation).
April. – St. George the Martyr (23rd. – only in England).
May. – SS. Philip and James, Apostles (1st.); Finding of the Cross (3rd.).
June. – St. Margaret, Queen, Patroness of Scotland (10th., only in Scotland); Nativity of St. John the Baptist (24th.).
July. – St. James Major, Apostle (25th.); St. Anne, Mother of the Blessed Virgin (26th.).
August. – St. Laurence, Martyr (10th.); St. Bartholomew, Apostle (24th.).
September. – Nativity of the Blessed Virgin (8th.); St. Matthew, Apostle (21st.); St. Michael, Archangel, or Michaelmas Day (29th.).
October. – SS. Simon and Jude, Apostles (28th.).
November. – St. Andrew, Apostle (30th. – not for Scotland, see para. 3 above).
December. – The Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin (8th.); St. Thomas, Apostle (21th.); St. Stephen, First Martyr (26th.); St. John, Apostle and Evangelist (27th.); the Holy Innocents (28th.); St. Thomas of Canterbury, Martyr (29th. in England only).
Easter Monday and Tuesday, and Monday and Tuesday in Whitsun Week. Also Corpus Christi (Thursday next after Trinity Sunday).

Explanation of the Plate.

7. At the top we have a priest saying Mass on a Feast day before a devout congregation. Immediately below we see a ball going on, attended by worldly men and women who prefer their pleasures to the sanctification of Sunday and Holy Days and who, unless they repent, must inevitably end by falling into the abyss of hell below. In the bottom left hand corner is represented a priest saying Mass in a private house, and in the opposite corner the keeping of the Feast of Tabernacles by the Jews.

8. The six medallions represent the six weekdays and the devotion special to each. The remaining pictures require no explanation.

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The Catechism in Pictures (1912)

 

Page 1 – images & texts 01 to 15   Click here
Page 2 – images & texts 16 to 32   Click here
Page 3 – images & texts 33 to 49   Actual Page
Page 4 – images & texts 50 to 66   Click here

 


 

publié 10 février 2018 par missiondesainteanne

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